Saturday, November 2, 2019

Personal development and careers Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Personal development and careers - Assignment Example Learning can be presented in terms of two theories, cognitive and behavioural. Cognitive behaviour or cognition focuses on a person’s thought processes to determine his or her behaviours and emotions. Behavioural theory is based on the changes, which can be observed in behaviour, and concentrates on a response to some type of stimulus. Other differences between the two theories include the fact that cognition helps to explain how the processes of brain work and store new information, while the behaviourists are involved in applying laboratory outcomes to elucidate the performance of human beings. Cognitive problem solving involves insight and understanding compared to behaviourist’s problem solving method which occurs via trial and error. Learning is frequently defined by the terms cognitive or behavioural. But there are numerous definitions for it. These include definitions such as ‘changes in an individual's behaviour arising from experience’, ‘the cognitive process of acquiring skill or knowledge’, ‘a relatively permanent change in cognition, resulting from experience and directly influencing behaviour’ and ‘changes in a person's behaviour caused by information and experience.’ Although there is no exact definition of the term learning, but the essential premise from the explanations provided above is that of a change or transformation in behaviour through the acquisition of knowledge, some skill or experience. McShane and Travaglione (2003) recognized the process of learning as direct experience, reinforcement, feedback, and observation. Reinforcement is the strengthening of behaviour that is expected to occur in the future. Operant conditioning shows how new behaviours become conventional through association with particular stimulus. Any behaviour that is reinforced or rewarded will tend to be recurring. Operant conditioning or reinforcement considerably improves learning in a work setting. Feedback is defined as any information that people receive about the consequences of their former behaviour. Feedback has an effect on behaviour, hence learning improves performance and enhances the individual’s ability and motivates them.  A person can learn a lot about him/her and the organisation through feedback, including his strengths and weaknesses, which may enable him to undertake specific courses (steps) to build knowledge and improve the quality of work.   Observation helps people to learn by observing the behaviours of others, resulting in people modelling the behaviour that leads to a constructive and positive outcome as opposed to a behaviour that will lead to unfavourable results. Observation helps in increasing an individual’s motivation and ability by watching others accomplishing their objectives and identifying themselves within that position. The majority of what is learnt in an organization today occurs through experience. Direct experience is sometimes required to gain understanding and change, refine, or create a mental model. Direct experience provides built-in opportunities for active involvement in a learning environment which determinedly shapes individual’s understandings. These four activities which identify the procedure of learning are further supported by Nonaka’s process. Here the learning process is also divided in four phases: socialization, externalisation, combination and internalisation. Socialisation is where

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