Thursday, October 31, 2019
Women suffrage - Essay Example In the capacity of the mainstream organization of the movement, NAWSA helped women obtain voting rights by waging state-by-state campaigns. Women that played a pivotal role in the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s suffrage movement included but were not limited to Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Susan B. Anthony. Under their leadership, the suffragists lobbied Congress to make amendment to the constitution so that women could be enfranchised. Susan B. Anthony wrote the federal woman suffrage amendment. Congress introduced the federal woman suffrage amendment in 1878. In 1919, the Senate and the House of Representatives passed the federal woman suffrage amendment, which was then forwarded for ratification to the states. As a result of the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s suffrage movement, Ã¢â¬Å"Nineteenth Amendment gives women the voteÃ¢â¬ in 1920 (Henretta, 2009). In the same year, the Womens Bureau of the Department of Labor was established for the safeguard of working
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Misplaced trust - Essay Example In spite of all my misgivings, I did help her though, and I wish I had listened to my intuitions. A week had gone by since I consented to my sisterÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes and accommodated Poppy in my house. For the time I stayed with Poppy, all I heard was complaints and shoves in my face, literary, my body ached due to the kicking I had to endure from her gigantic feet. I never had peace in my place again which made me consider my options which of course were not many. Was to either continue living with Poppy or ask her to leave before she could drive me insane. After many considerations, I made a decision after the torturous weeks to dumb her on my friendÃ¢â¬â¢s doorstep and I did just that. The following month, I met my best friend who informed me that Poppy was planning on suing her. I was keen to get the facts for I knew the intrigues and drama that comes with being around Poppy. I laughed my heart out when I learned the reason for the latest episode of PoppyÃ¢â¬â¢s drama; my friendÃ¢â¬â¢s cat scratched her catÃ¢â¬â¢s eye. That was the most ridicules thing I had heard in a long time. As a result of my best friendÃ¢â¬â¢s current mishaps, all the blame for her situation was heaped on me, from facilitating PoppyÃ¢â¬â¢s move to the tiniest scratch. As a consequence of all these denunciations from my best friend, I had a fight with her about trust as she was accusing me damping these issues on her and therefore she could not trust me anymore because I had lied too much. Our relationship changed from being really close to basically not contacting each other. Poppy of course wanted to move because of what happened, as always, I was the one to rescue her and indeed, I did help her find a place to stay. I sought help from one of another of oldest best friends I have ever had which proved to be a mistake that led to a big disaster. Poppy was not satisfied with the new place, her reason being that the place was far. My
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Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Country with High Mortality - Research Paper Example The total surface area of the country is 238,533 sq. km /92,098 sq. miles (WHO, 2013). According to the United Nations Department Of Population and Social Affairs, the estimated total population for Ghana was 24,392 000 for the year 2010 and a projected 27,315,000 in year 2015.Of the total population, a bigger percentage is estimated to be in urban areas than I rural areas. The total population density for Ghana is estimated to be 82,000 and 146,000 people per kilometre in 2000 and 2030 respectively (WHO, 2013). Ghana is one of the more stable nations in Africa, with a good record of power changing hands peacefully. It has a multi-party system with a presidential representative government, whereby; the president is elected directly by citizens in general elections. The president becomes both the head of state and government (Princeton.edu, 2013). Ghana is the world's second largest cocoa producer behind Ivory Coast, and Africa's biggest gold miner after South Africa. Other top minera ls in Ghana include tuna, bauxite, aluminium, manganese ore, and diamonds. It is one of the continent's fastest growing economies with a projected growth rate of 7% in 2012 although its lower than of the previous year(World Bank,2013). The high growth rate is prompted by strong cocoa production, increased gold production among other factors. The GNI per capita of Ghana is US $1,230 (WHO, 2013) State of Health in Ghana The probability of dying between 15 and 60 years otherwise known as adult mortality rate, in Ghana was 273 per 1000 people. The life expectancy in years is slightly higher in females than in males, at 64% and 60% respectively. According to WHO, the leading cause of death in the country is malaria followed by HIV/AIDS and diarrhoeal diseases. It is estimated that in 2008, the leading cause of death among children under five was malaria, accounting for 26% of the total deaths. The mortality rate as a result of malaria in 2006 was higher in Ghana than in the neighbouring Cote dÃ¢â¬â¢ vore.In addition, theHIV/AIDS was also high in that country as compared to Burkina Faso and generally in the African continent in year 2007.Communicable diseases record the highest burden of disease, followed by non-communicable diseases. Injuries have the lowest distribution of burden of disease. According to WHO, the number of deaths from traffic accidents in Ghana was among the highest in the world, which marks a major contribution to the high mortality rates. Being one of the stable nations in Africa, Ghana does not experience a lot of deaths from violence (WHO, 2013). According to a study conducted in Ghana titled Ã¢â¬Å"Public Perceptions on the Role of Traditional Medicine in Health Care Delivery SystemÃ¢â¬ , findings suggest that traditional medicine is effective in treating various ailments. Some of the ailments that are effectively treated using traditional medicines in Ghana include malaria, mental illness, infertility, arthritis, boils, and typhoid fever , just to mention a few. While this is the case, it is worth noting that the traditional medicines are non-standardised as emphasized by Gyasi, Mensah, Osei-Wusu & Agyemang,2011). To most Ghanaians, poverty is a strong barrier to the utilization of health people than the orthodox care services. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s no surprise then that traditional medicine is found to be cheaper and more readily available to the medicine.
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Science Instruction - Essay Example The inspiration for this class project comes from an Associated Press article in the Salt Lake City Tribune entitled: Ã¢â¬Å"Risk cluster linked to child obesityÃ¢â¬ (2004). This article presents a health risk and possible factors contributing to that risk. There are several instructional as well as social goals involved in this project. The instructional goals will allow the children not only to research the issues but also create a resource for data collection and present many possible outcomes for solutions to the problem. It is important to remember not just to stick to strict guidance: Sometimes, you may need to ask for facts, at other times you will focus attention on relationships, reasons and causes. Sometimes, the talk will relate to prior experience and, at other times, it will be about something the children have just seen or are investigating. (Newton, 2002, p. 33) This project will also focus on tolerance of other children who have difficulties and are possibly different than the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ usual peers. By exploring these other factors the students will raise their understanding and compassion for those around them. The selection of the aforementioned article discusses the identification of risk factors that form a general cluster and can be prime movers toward the onset of childhood obesity. This creates what researches at the Yale University of Medicine have called, Ã¢â¬Å"metabolic syndromeÃ¢â¬ (Risk, 2004). This syndrome consists of the following characteristics: high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high cholesterol, low HDL cholesterol levels and obesity. These factors should act as a yellow flag and need to be addressed as early as possible to prevent the comorbid presentation of other health factors such as Type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Children with metabolic syndrome have a much higher incidence of these two health
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Sunday, October 27, 2019
Adopting Single Currency in ASEAN Region: Analysis Question 1 1.1 Introduction Euro (Ã¢â ¬) currency was created in 1957 and the single currency provides many benefits to the euro region. For an example, Euro currency eliminated exchange costs and fluctuation risks. It gives stability of economic to the euro region, so it allows government to have better long term planning for future. In addition, economic stability also helps to reduce uncertainty and increase investment, so it gives advantages to the businesses as well. As businesses gain advantages from economic stability, it also give benefits to the citizen as it provides more job and better quality jobs. Furthermore, with a single currency, it is less risky and more cost-effective when doing business within the euro area as there is one large integrated market. Besides that, it promotes cross-border trade and all kind of investments as the price can be compare easily when using the same currency. (N/A, 2014) Thus, the successful of implementing a single currency of euro (Ã¢â ¬) arise the interest to t he topic of whether other region can successfully adopting common approaches. Especially for ASEAN region as ASEAN is one of the region that economic acceleration is much positive. However, there is always a question whether ASEAN can successfully implemented a common currency, as euro currency in European Union. We have to look at the challenges of adopting a single currency for ASEAN economic in order to identify whether ASEAN region is suitable to make such approaches. Content 1.2.1 Intra-Regional Trade First of all, substantial intra-regional trade is one of the key challenges to adopt single currency for Asia. Big volume of inter-transaction within Asia will enhance the currency of countries in Asia. However, countries in Asia done more trading with countries where outside the region, approximately 75% more than countries in Asia. Therefore, Asia countries are worried for their currencies stability against international currencies if they adopt a single currency. Asia countries can import more goods and services from countries outside the region than intra-regional countries only if their total exports is greater than total imports. (Lee, 2009) To sum up, Asean region have to increase their transaction within their regional area before implement a single currency in order to stabilize Asean currency. 1.2.2 Economic Development Besides that, Asean countries have different economic development, their GDPs and per capita income levels are different to one another countries. For instance, per capita income of Singapore is approximately 350 times more than poor country like MyanmarÃ¢â¬â¢s. In addition, countries in the region area like China, India and Indonesia are part of the largest countries in the world, yet they show big income differentials. It is difficult to bear a similar monetary management with such a big income differentials. (Lee, 2009) 1.2.3 Monetary System Market Integration Moreover, monetary integration is another big challenge to adopt single currency for Asean region. Monetary integration refer to central banks and governments of the region countries would have less control over monetary policies and fiscal policies. However, some countries are just not ready for such integration as monetary policy is an important tool to stimulate economy. For instance, countries are not able to use tools such as interest rates to address cyclical needs. (Lee, 2009) For further explanation, every country have different economic objectives, for an example, some countries in the region are suffering recession and some countries are suffering an inflation. Thus, expansionary policies are needed for some countries to address recession, and contractionary policies are needed for some countries to address inflation, but ASEAN central bank can only implement one monetary policy at one time. Therefore, there is a huge problem among the union. In addition, countries like Jap an and Korea such developed country have maintain tight restrictions on labor mobility. However, Governments of region countries have to implement policies which allow for greater mobility for labor and capital across within the region borders in order to manage a common currency. However, it is hard to transfers large-scale of resource across national borders as at the union level, governments will have less centralized budget. In addition, Asean is desire to set limits on the fiscal deficits for each country due to experience from European. Hence, country can only respond to country specific shocks by using limited fiscal policies. (Madhur, 2002) 1.2.4 Financial System Other than that, a strong financial systems and markets are required to manage a common currency. It required a strong institutional support as well, but Asean currently does not have such institutions to deal with those threat to the financial sector. (Lee, 2009) Unlike Europe, Europe have established a wide range of institutions such as European Commission, European Council and the European Central Bank to control regional reserve. Somehow, it is a big challenge to Asean to develop such infrastructure. (Madhur, 2002) 1.2.5 Macroeconomic Disturbance Furthermore, the cost of adopting a single currency is domestic central bank have to give up the power to control monetary policy and the currency have to control by ASEAN central bank. However, every countries have different rates of inflation as economic conditions are different. Therefore, it is hard for ASEAN central bank to control all the ASEAN area by implementing a policy and problems may occur if one or two countries failed to adjust interest rates to meet the demands. For an example, the lesson from European debt crisis, European Union is currently discussing whether Greece should return to its own monetary policy that regulated by Greek Central Bank and leave the Euro zone. Meanwhile, there are same situation in the ASEAN as ASEAN nations have two different economic power groups. For instance, the first groups are those nations which are advanced economies such as Brunei, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore and Philippines. The second groups are those nations which ar e least developed such as Laos, Vietnam, Myanmar and Cambodia. This two group have big difference in terms of income per capital. For an example, income per capital of Singapore have approximately 350 times more than Myanmar. In addition, Myanmar have high inflation rates and Laos have high unemployment rates. Therefore, it is difficult to address the problems with a same monetary policy as the differentials of inflation rate and unemployment rate between one country and another. (Sidjaja, 2011) Impact of single currency to Asean economy 1.3.1 Positive implications On the other hand, implement a single currency for Asean economic community would have bring positive effect to the Asean region. Eliminate transaction costs is one of the benefits of implementing a common currency. With a single currency, countries or businesses can save transaction cost when trading within the region as the cost of exchanging currency is no longer needed. For instance, Malaysia citizens can travel or do investment in region area like Singapore, Thailand, Japan and others by using Asean currency. Transaction costs are eliminated as exchange for other currencies are not needed when trading within region area. Therefore, it helps to promote trade within regional area as it is easier to trade by using a single currency. In addition, single currency also allow businesses to have better planning as it eliminated the fluctuation cost. Otherwise, businesses could incur high cost by fluctuation cost. For an example, a company in Malaysia decide to sign a shipping service fr om company in Singapore with a five year deal which cost 10,000 SGD per month. At that time, the exchange rate was 1.00 SGD to 2.00 MYR, so the company in Malaysia have to pay 20,000 MYR per month. However, SGD have appreciated against MYR as the exchange rate was 1.00 SGD to 2.7 MYR, which result company in Malaysia have to pay 27,000 MYR because of the fluctuation cost. Hence, investment would increases with using single currency as firms can have a better business planning. Besides that, single currency makes it easier to compare price of products and services across countries in regional area, which encourage more trading within regional area. As a result, increases in competition, and economic efficiency improved. (Sanno, 2010) 1.3.2 Cost of adopting Single Currency The biggest cost of implementing a common currency is countries have to give up their national sovereignty. They are no longer able to implement own monetary policy in their country. This could result some problems to certain countries in the region as monetary policy only can implemented once at one time. As the example of European Union, European central bank cannot address the problems of Greece which suffering of high inflation because if European central bank implement a contractionary policy intend to address high inflation in Greece, it would lead another negative effect to other countries in Europe like Spain where the country currently suffer from recession and having high unemployment rate. 1.4 Conclusion To sum up, adopting a single currency have pros and cons. A single currency would promotes economic growth of Asean region as transaction costs and fluctuation costs are eliminated which increases trade and investment within the region and attract investors from outside the region. However, countries have to give up for their national sovereignty as monetary policies will be implemented by Asean Central Bank. Despite that, there are several challenges that Asean region have to deal with in order to implement a successful single currency such as intra-regional trade, economic development, monetary systems market integration, financial system and macroeconomic disturbance. From the view of those challenges, Asean region is just not ready yet to implement a single currency as Asean intra-regional trade is not strong enough. In addition, economic development in the region have too big differentials, for instance, Singapore compare to Myanmar. Besides that, some countries like Myanmar an d Laos are not ready to give up their national sovereignty yet because Myanmar is currently suffering high inflation rates and Laos is suffering high unemployment rates. Moreover, Asean still need some time to develop a strong financial system to meet the infrastructure like in European Union. Last but not least, Asean is also not ready to deal with macroeconomic disturbance yet as some countries are having high inflation rates, whereas some countries are having high unemployment rates. Thus, it will not be a wised move to adopt a single currency for Asean as member countries in Asean still have a lot in uncommon. As the lessons from Euro crisis, issues in a weak economy country could affect the strong performing country. (Penh, 2012) Asean should adopt a single currency in no rush, otherwise similar consequences would occurred again in Asean region. Question 2 2.1 Introduction The three key macroeconomic factors are inflation, unemployment, and forex. Policymakers always implement many kind of policies to deal with those macroeconomic factors. These three key macroeconomics factors could lead to further global financial crisis if policymakers do not implemented proper policies to address. For instance, when economy reached the peak, high inflation may hit on the economy. Therefore, policymakers have to implement contractionary policy in order to deal with high inflation. On the other hand, when economy is suffering from recession, high unemployment rate would occur. So that, policymakers have to implement expansionary policy to address high unemployment rate. Moreover, when economy comes to globalization, fluctuation of exchange rates might be too high. Hence, policymakers have to used certain currency reserve to stabilize the exchange rates. However, policymakers sometime just did not see through illusion of business cycle, as a result lead to financial c risis. Stock markets are crucial to financial crisis as when stock markets collapse, countries could suffer from financial crisis. Macroeconomic factors such as inflation, unemployment, and forex would affect the firm value, stock returns and risk assessment. Content 2.2.1 Inflation Inflation means that overall price levels increase sustainably. Inflation does affect firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance as inflation incur costs on firms. With the inflation, firms have to spend more money on raw materials. For an example, Air Asia have to pay more money for the jet fuel if the price of jet fuel goes up. In addition, employee demand more wages as inflation lower down their standard of living. Jet fuel and wages are two major costs for Air Asia. Increases in price of jet fuel and wages also mean that cost of Air Asia increased. Therefore, Air Asia would increase price of airline tickets as well to sustain their profitability. In this situation, cost of the services increased and price of the services also increased. However, demand for airline tickets decrease due to the theory of demand, as price goes up, demand comes down. Hence, revenue of Air Asia decreases. In addition, the risk goes up because revenue of Air Asia might not able to afford to pay loans and costs. As risk goes up, default risk goes up as well. Besides that, provision of doubtful debt increases because debtors might also not able to settle the debt as revenue of debtors are also decreases. As the result, share price comes down. As the share price comes down, firm value also decreases. Moreover, inflation could also affect stock returns. Stock returns are the dividend paid by issuer to the stockholders. Most probably rise of inflation would reduce the stock returns as drop in revenue of company. Company can afford to pay same amount of dividends while suffering inflation only if company is able to ensure their earnings are keeping pace with the growth rate of inflation. However, it is unlikely as most of the revenue of companies would decreased. (n/a, 2012) Furthermore, inflation also affect the risk assessment of a company as inflation brings different degree of risks. First of all, when the economy is having high inflation rates, central bank would implemented contractionary policy t o address inflation. Therefore, quantity of money supply in economy would decreases and thus, low purchasing power in economy. Hence, companies should focus on market in abroad rather than domestic country. For example, Air Asia should offer more of their flight services to other strong purchasing power countries like China, Singapore, Korea and others. As economy is suffering from high inflation, revenue of companies are expected to reduce. Therefore, company should have cut down their cost. For an example, Air Asia would have to cut numbers of staff and closed certain area in airport. In addition, companies should not only focus on offering a single product or service in order to diversify the risk. For instance, Air Asia not only offer flight services but also selling tax free chocolate, alcohol, and others product. Therefore, when the inflation hit on the input price of jet fuel, Air Asia is still able to gain some revenue. Share price of companies are expected to drop when hit by inflation. Hence, the possibility of shareholders sell all of his shares are high, so companies should have prepared funds to buy back those share to maintain the share price as much as possible; otherwise the company would panic. 2.2.2 Unemployment Unemployment refers to people who currently do not have a job, but willing to work. Unemployment bring many impacts on firms. First of all, high unemployment mean there is less disposal income in economy. People donÃ¢â¬â¢t get income when they do not have a job. Hence, the spending power in the economy is weak. On the other hand, cost of wages would decrease as there are too much surplus of labor supply in the economy when there is high unemployment. Reason decline of wages is because of the competition for a job. People is willing to accept lower wages to get a job. Decreases in cost of wages is one of the element to get better profits, but in high unemployment situation, revenue and profits of company would fall as the purchasing power is low. Therefore the risk of company increases as company might not able to settle down the liability because revenue of company is not enough to cover. Hence, default risk of company increases as rises of risk of company. In addition, provision o f doubtful debt might increases as other companies might also face similar difficulties which they canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford to pay their debt. At the end, the share price of company would falls because of the poor business performance of company. Share price of company falls lead to firm value falls. Besides that, unemployment also affect stock returns, when suffering from depression, most of the companies would not pay a single sen to their shareholders as they need to gather up their capital to deal with uncertainty or set to make expansion. So that, stock returns are zero at this situation. Other than that, unemployment also affect the risk assessment of a country. High unemployment have some specific risks. First, central bank would implemented expansionary policy to deal with high unemployment. At the same time, government is eager to address unemployment problem as soon as possible because taxes receive by government falls and national economic is weak. At this stage, central bank may reduce the interest rates which intend to lend out money to firms for expansion and thus, deploy labor. In addition, wages of labor is cheap. Therefore, the risk to expand the businesses of firms are low as firms can enjoy cheap interest rates and cheap labor wages. Moreover, it is risky to offer normal or luxury goods and services since most of the people canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford to enjoy such goods and services. Instead, firms should offer more inferior goods which most of people can afford. Besides that, firms should hire security guards in the working area in order to eliminate risk of crime. Such social problems happened frequently, especially when depression. For example, every Rolex retail shop have deploy at least two security guards to keep their shop safe and avoid robbery. (Riley, 2009)
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Introduction Of The Smartphone The first ever cell phone was invented by Martin Cooper on April 3rd, 1973, that was only for two pounds. The height of that phone was 10 inches, depth 3 inches and the width an inch and a half (Motorcity, 2003). At that time it was the only way to communicate with each other. And at that time it was not available to the general population and it was used for the first time only businesses and government. In 1992, the first Smartphone invented by IBM, known as a Simon Smartphone. This was a big breakthrough in the field of technology and for the requirements of people. Because people want to connect with each other with in a small period of time. It becomes possible to send messages and sending email to each other with the help of Smartphone. To understand that one technological device could change culture of customer, style of living and the whole society. After the invention of Smartphone a sudden change came into being in the human life and finds the way to go ahead in the field of technology. It is not possible to find anyone without smart phone. The smart phone is very essential device because of this you can talk to your clients, family members and colleagues. In other words a smart phone is also known as Personal Computer (PC) with advanced capabilities and functionality. The Importance of Smartphone When discussing the topic of new media the importance of networks are very essential. With the help of networks the whole world is connected with each other. And this is the easiest way to connect with your family members, friends and clients. When someone is going to purchase a cell phone he will think about the service of his area, the size of the phone, about the price of the phone then you have to make a decision to purchase a phone. If consumer purchases a smartphone he will be very happy with the functions of smartphone than any other in the market. IT professionals are tasked with developing more applications for smartphones as worldwide consumption continues to grow in 2010 and beyond. When technology professionals design web-based and computer-based applications, they should consider compatibility with smartphones and other mobile devices. Many webmasters already create web content with mobile users in mind. For example, the Internet giant Yahoo! offers a Mobile Web for phones like the Blackberry and iPhone. Role of Social Media Social media is playing a vital role in the success of martphones, because of social media its possible to share data, videos, pictures, and other tasks. Facebook, Twitter and MySpace are the example of social media. Social media and smartphones means to connect more and more people online even on mobile. Operating System of Smartphone In 2010 the market of smartphone operating system changed. For customer and businessmen the impoetance of smartphone is very essential. Because without smartphone its not possible to keep in cotact with each other, with clients and with family members and friends. Key features of Smartphone: Wi-Fi With the help of this feature you can connect wireless internet connection. Using Wi-Fi the speed of internet will be very high. Push Notification By push notification we mean that you can receive messages, emails and you do not need to log in to check your account. Social Networking Social Networking means those websites such as Facebook, YouTube and Twitter by which we can communicate with each other individually and as well as groups and also can share photos, videos and album. QWERTY Keyboard QWERTY keyboard is the layout and this keyboard allows you to search and browse the internet and send emails and text. One may see a smartphone as one that offers a complete keyboard with internet and email functionality, and some may only view a smart phone as a phone with a full operating system (OS) and applications. A smartphone is a full-featured mobile phone that comes equipped with the personal computer like functionality. So it is the most efficient way of being mobile and carrying your office with you. Most of these phonescome with a camera that supports email capabilities and serves as a complete personal organizer. This is true that the smartphones are the helping hand of the several businessmens. Because of the technological features of mobile phones these are called smart phone. In these days smartphone is a basic demand of every businessman and company. By latest technology it includes to share his idea with their partners and colleagues. With the help of smart phone we can watch live match if you are somewhere else it does not matter, breaking news. We can get help from smart phone like human bodies. In next five years change will take place suddenly in smartphones. If we study last few years about phones we will understand that how quickly changes occurred from time to time, therefore in next few years the improvement in technology will take place. PC Replacements The basic change in smartphones in next few years will occur that it starts working like laptops. It means that in future those people who have smartphones they do not need to buy laptops and personal computers. So smartphones will replace PC in next five years. Joined Devices After long time finally its become possible to connect devices with each other like bluetooth in PC and in laptop can connect with smart phones. In next few years it will be possible to know about you that now where are you and what do you want to do because of smart phones. Smart phones will become a single device in next few years yes it is true because the smart phones are moving in a straight forward direction. There are alot of confusion because of the variety of mobiles phone and competency. If you want to have a great mobile than smartphone is the best choice among all. Smartphone is much better than any other mobile phone. If you have smartphone you can move your office with where you want so than you do not need to buy personal computer or laptop because in smartphone there is an operating system like personal computer and laptop, so nowadays most of smartphones are with their camera. Top ten Smartphone iPhone 3GS The iPhone 3GS continues to bring together three incredible products in one A revolutionary phone, a widescreen iPod and a breakthrough Internet device with full web browsing and easy e-mail access. HTC Desire HTC have yet again outdone themselves with another superb smartphone, this time in the form of the HTC Desire! Powered by a monstrous 1GHz Snapdragon processor and displayed through a stunning AMOLED 3.7 inch full touchscreen. Samsung Wave The Samsung Wave mobile phone allows for a brighter, clearer and less reflective view with the Super AMOLED 3.3 inch wide display touchscreen. BlackBerry 9700 The BlackBerry 9700 is jam-packed with all the very best Blackberry features including Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, HSDPA, full QWERTY keyboard, 3G technology and Push e-mail! BlackBerry 8520 Smart, sleek and classy the Blackberry 8520 Curve is here to entertain, organise and communicate. Sony Ericsson Xperia X10 The first Android mobile phone from Sony Ericsson, the Xperia X10, has a stunning 4 inch touchscreen, 1GHz Snapdragon processor and truly next generation features, such as Timescape and Mediascape. Sony EricssonVivaz The Sony Ericsson Vivaz mobile phone is here to deliver high performance, responsive touch control, multimedia, entertainment and connectivity, just how you want it. Memory Cards You can greatly improve the memory of your Smartphone by purchasing a memory card. This allows you to save and store more applications, music, photos, videos and more. Your Smartphone can become a multimedia entertainment centre! The best thing is, you can pick the size (or capacity) of the memory card to suit your needs or budget! Nearly all Smartphones are compatible with MicroSD memory cards and our memory cards range from 2GB to 8GB. Screen Protectors Protect the most expensive part of your smartphone the display, with a screen protector. This essential purchase is cheap but crucial and will greatly improve the protection from chips and scratches on your Smartphones screen. Screen protectors are extremely easy to attach to your Smartphones, and once fixed in place, are virtually unnoticeable. Bluetooth Headsets With a Bluetooth headset you can make and take calls on the move, wherever you are and keep your hands free! Using the Bluetooth connection on your Smartphone, a Bluetooth headset will allow you to talk without needing to hold your phone. This means your Smartphone can be safely stored in your laptop, purse, bag or pocket! Summary Smartphones are playing very vital role in the world. Without smartphines it is not possible to connect with each other even with members of the same organisation. So it is very clear if you have smartphone then it does not matter you can contact with relatives, friends, clients. And you can move your office any where in the world. As discussed above that smartphones have operating system so then you do not need to buy personal computer and laptop. Because the smartphone gives you that work which personal computer and laptop do. In next five years amazing change will occure in smartphones by the improvement of technology. Smartphone will replace personal computer because it has the complete keyboard and many other functions which personal computer has. So it is true that within the next few years smartphones will become the single most important digital device we own. Role of E-commerce in Ebays and Amazons popularity E-commerce is playing very vital role in the popularity of ebay and amazon. Because it is only possible to buy goods online from ebay and amazon. Without electronic commerce its not possible for ebay and amazon to reach at this top level. By the help of e-commerce everyone can buy things online without any problem. So it means that without e-commerce ebay and amazon can not acheive the goals and objectives. E-commerce or electronic commerce means purchasing and selling of goods and services and exchanges on the Internet. On Internet with a big success of ecommerce commonly we can say that it is shopping at World Wide Web. Simply we can say that when we do online shopping it is called ecommerce. Types of E-commerce B2B (Business-to-Business) Business-to-Business means that when company dealing with each other like wholesalers selling to retailers, and manufacturers selling to distributors. In this kind of business customer or client will not be included. B2C (Business-to-Consumer) In this kind of businesses selling is directly to consumer through cart software. C2B (Consumer-to-Business) In C2B business a consumer put his project online and then different organisation study the consumers needs and then try to get that project. And then consumer selects the company that can do the project. C2C (Consumer-to-Consumer) C2C business means that everyone is free to buy and sell from each other by online payment system. Like Amazone and eBay is alive examples of C2C business where alot of transaction take place everyday. Role of 2.0 technologies in Ebays and Amazons popularity Web 2.0 was introduced in 2004 and know as the second generation of the World Wide Web. It does not relate to a particular type of Web. Examples of 2.0 are listed below: Blogs: Blogs means that users can post and upgrade their profile of life on the Web. Wikis: It enables the users from the whole world to update and add online content. Social networking: MySpace and Facebook are the present examples by which people can interact with their friends and update their own profile. Web application: By the help of variety of new applications users can run programs directly in a browser. 1. Making money Of course. Since the first data-scraping and sniping tools well, wait, make that since eBay first opened its APIs to developers, the eBay development ecosystem has grown with the volume of eBay transactions. eBay sellers sold $60B last year, and the 80,000 developers who helped sellers research, list, and service all those transactions also received their cut. 2. Useful technology eBay has some of the greatest technology and data assets on the web. The technology of eBay and PayPal is useful on a massive scale. PayPal has 70 million users. eBay sees 150 million unique visitors per month, and supports 70 million sellers worldwide. The developer community that provides applications for eBay sellers and buyers uses the eBay APIs to drive as much as 60% of eBay transactions. 3. Accessible technology Mark emphasized the importance of mobile applications.The eBay iPhone application is a strong start. It is clear that he believes eBay should make a powerful effort to enable mobile usage. eBay and its third-party developers still need to make some breakthroughs to enable accessibility. 4. Technology adapted to you Today, your cell phone is a communications device, an entertainment center, a mall, and a social network. Tomorrow, it may also be your wallet. Already you can instantly repay a loan to a friend who has a PayPal account. Soon, In-N-Out Burgers may accept PayPal, and you will be able to pay for your burgers at the counter from your cell phone. PayPal is uniquely adaptable for this kind of use, because it is a single global payment network, with end-to-end transaction visibility, good risk protection and fraud detection, integrated with more than 15k banks. PayPal unifies the worlds disparate money systems to enable payments anywhere. The big news in adaptable technology is that the PayPal Developer Program is opening up later in 2009. Third-party developers will use flexible APIs for sending money to create mobile payments applications that will change the way people pay for things. 5. Open platform eBay released a new developer opportunity today.SM Apps lets developers embed seller applications in ebay.com, just as you can embed applications in Facebook. The difference is that with SM Apps developers can make money, charging a one-time fee or using a subscription model for use of their application. Because the SM Apps platform uses the Gadgets specification, applications built for eBay can also operate elsewhere on the web, including on other portal pages. The Selling Manager tool has 270,000 active, paying businesses operating in the U.S. alone. As Mark said, While other platforms are trying to figure out monetization we are set up for you [the developer] to take a cut, and we hope you will. Summary E-commerce and Web 2.0 technologies are the way of popularity of ebay and amazon. Everyone in the world knows about the role of e-commerce and amazon. So in this essay the importance of e-commerce and amazon are discussed in brief. Ebays and amazons popularities are connected with e-commerce and web 2.0 technologies. So it is not possible without e-commerce and web 2.0 technologies that ebay and amazon get popularity. Everyday there are alot of buying and purchasing occurred in daily life and these transaction are increasing day by day, by this we can say that these two are the key factors in the popularity of ebay and amazon.
Posted by w at 5:50 AM
Friday, October 25, 2019
The Great Gatsby: Philosophic and Political Contexts Attempting both a sustained close reading of the novel, and the relocation of that reading within wider philosophic and political contexts, one must therefore consider the impact of a broad mystical strain of Western thought upon Fitzgerald's political analysis. For while it is a commonplace that Fitzgerald was fascinated, throughout his life, with what is variously conceived as the "ideal," "the Dream," "inspiration," the "visionary," or "Desire," a tradition with which the book opens, the political uses of the ideal have largely escaped notice. It seems hard to believe in our period, when a three-decade lurch to the political Right has anathematized the word, but F. Scott Fitzgerald once, rather fashionably, believed himself to be a socialist. Some years before, he had also, less fashionably, tried hard to think himself a Catholic. While one hardly associates the characteristic setting of Fitzgerald's novels, his chosen kingdom of the sybaritic fabulous, with either proletarian solidarity or priestly devotions, it is clear that a tension between Left and religiose perspectives structures the very heart of the vision of The Great Gatsby. For while Gatsby offers a detailed social picture of the stresses of an advanced capitalist culture in the early 1920s, it simultaneously encodes its American experience, at key structural moments, within the mitigating precepts of a mystic Western dualism. Attempting both a sustained close reading of the novel, and the relocation of that reading within wider philosophic and political contexts, one must therefore consider the impact of a broad mystical strain of Western thought upon Fitzgerald's political analysis. For while it is a commonplace that Fitzgerald was fascinated, throughout his life, with what is variously conceived as the "ideal," "the Dream," "inspiration," the "visionary," or "Desire," a tradition with which the book opens, the political uses of the ideal have largely escaped notice. Fitzgerald's excitably visionary sensibility, nourished in high school years by Catholic mysticism, fashioned him into a superbly perceptive critic of the appropriation of human need of the ideal by developments in American capitalism in the 1920s. In response to economic crisis in the early years of this decade, the national advertising media developed and promoted a new cult of glamour, seeking through its allure to create a mass consumer market and revivify the foundering work ethic. Fitzgerald's entrancement by the suggestive power of beauty sensitized him both
Posted by w at 4:35 AM
Tale of Two Cities The main purpose of this book is to show the contrasts between the peaceful city of London and the city of Paris, tearing itself apart in revolution. This is apparent in the very first line of the book, "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times...." This is a contrast of the two cities, London, the tranquil home of Mr. Lorry and the Darnays'; and Paris, the center of a bloody revolution. The author shows gentleness in these violent times in the persons of Dr. and Lucie Mannette, both gentle and peaceful. He also characterizes the evil side of the revolution in the apathetic and depraved Misuser and Mademoiselle Defarge, who go about their business while death carts roll-- as do heads-- through the streets of Paris. He does though, depict a ray of light amongst all this evil; the heroic Carton, who gave his life for his friend and a woman he knew he would never have. The biggest contrast of all, is in the person of Misuser Darnay, the gentle English family man, who is also related to the evil Marquis Evremonde. I personally like stories that use historical events as backdrops because it brings these seemingly distant events closer to us. This book definitely offers insight into life in the two cities at the time of the French Revolution. I think it does an excellent job of depicting just how totally involved some people became in the revolution. It shows how people were blinded by the desire for freedom from their former oppressors, so much so, that they attacked anyone and anything that was even remotely related to their past rulers. I think this was effectively done by excellent characterization, using each character to depict a different aspect of society, then contrasting them by making them rivals. I really took away a different view of that time period. Some of the language he used was definitely outdated. The language was exactly what you would expect for a novel of that time period. I was able to follow the story pretty well, although there were a few times, in switching back and forth between cities, that I got a little lost Still on the whole I liked the way the story flowed. Unlike some stories of that time, there wasn't really any profanity or taking of God's name in vain, which is always good to see.
Posted by w at 4:21 AM
Thursday, October 24, 2019
Once SAB Miller has decided to establish itself in the global market, it becomes necessary for the marketing manager to study and analyze the various options available to enter the international markets and select the most suitable one. The selection of the entry mode is one of the most significant decisions.SAB Miller takes in the process of internationalization, as it involves commitment of resources with long-term financial and structural implications. Mode of entry may be defined as an institutional mechanism by which a firm makes its products or services available to consumer in international markets. Root (1994) defines the market entry for international markets as a comprehensive plan which sets forth the objectives,goals,resources,and policies that guide a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s international business operations over a future period long enough to achieve sustainable growth in world markets. FACTORS AFFECTING THE SELECTION OF ENTRY MODE EXTERNAL MODES MARKET SIZE:Market size is one of the key factors an international marketer has to develop to keep in mind when selecting an entry strategy.Countries with a large market size justify the modes of entry with investment,such as wholly owned subsiaries or equity participation. MARKET GROWTH:Most of the large,established markets,such US,Europe and Japan,have more or less reached a point of saturation for consumer goods such as automobiles,consumer electronics.Therefore,the growth of markets in these countries is showing a declining trend.For instance,the overall growth in most of the US and European market is about 7% while emerging markets like India and China is over 30% which indicates tremendous market potential in time to come. Therefore,from the perspective of long-term growth potential such as China,India,Thailand,Indonesia etc.These markets are also termed emerging markets. GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS:The selection of market entry modes to a great extent affected by the legislative framework of the overseas market,the government of most of the Gulf countries have made it mandatory for foreign firms to have local partner.For instance,the UAE is a lucrative market for Indian firms but most firms operate there with a local partner. Trade barriers such as ecological regulations and local content requirements also affect the mode of entry.It has been a major reason forÃ increased foreign investment in Mexico,which is a part of the North American Free Agreement(NAFTA),in order to cater to the US market. LEVEL OF COMPETITION:Presence of competitors and their level of involvement in an overseas market is another crucial factor in deciding on an entry mode so as to effectively respond to competitive market force.This is one of the major reasons behind auto companies setting up their operations in India and other emerging markets so as to effectively respond to global competition. INTERNAL MODES COMPANY OBJECTIVES:Companies operating in domestic markets with limited aspirations generally enter foreign markets as a result of a reactive approach to international marketing oppurtunities.In such cases,companies receive unsoliated orders from acquaintances,firms and relatives based abroad,and they attempt to fulfil these export orders.This casual approach to entering international markets by way of producing in the homemarket and exporting overseas translates into regular exporting if the firm has positive experience in its exports operation. AVAILABILTY OF COMPANY RESOURCES:Venturing into international markts needs substantial commitment of financial and human resources and therefore choice of an entry mode depends upon the financial strength of a firm.It may be observed that Indian firms with good financial strength have entered international markets by way of wholly owned subsidiaries or equity participation. LEVEL OF COMMITMENT:In view of the market potential,the willingness of the company to commit resources in a particular market also determines the entry mode choice.Companies need to evaluate various investment alternatives in a particular market also depends upon the way the company is willing to perceive and respond to competitive forces. INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE:A company well exposed to the dynamics of the international marketing environment would be at ease when making a decision regarding entering into international markets with a highly intensive mode of entry such as joint venture and wholly owned subsidiaries. Below are different modes of market entry and they include: EXPORTING Exporting is the simplest method of entering a foreign market.It is theÃ process of sending goods or services from country to other countries for use or sale there. By exporting to a foreign country,a company is able to enter this country without actually establishing itself in the country.The company must simply manufacture products that can be shipped to the foreign country.Export activities may take several forms,including indirect exporting,direct exporting,and intracorporate transfers. Direct exports represent the most basic mode of exporting, capitalizing on economies of scale in production concentrated in the home country and affording better control over distribution. Direct export works the best if the volumes are small. Types of direct exporting are: Sales representatives Ã¢â¬â that represent foreign suppliers/manufacturers in their local markets for an established commission on sales. Provide support services to a manufacturer regarding local advertising, local sales presentations, customs clearance formalities, legal requirements. Importing distributors Ã¢â¬â purchase product in their own right and resell it in their local markets to wholesalers, retailers, or both. Indirect Exporting Indirect export is the process of exporting through domestically based export intermediaries. Indirect methods of exporting requires less marketing investment, but, as the exporter has no control over its products in the foreign market, the company lose substantial control over the marketing process. Types or methods of indirect exporting are: Filling orders from domestic buyers who then export the product Seeking out domestic buyers who represent foreign customers Exporting through an Export Management Company (EMC) Exporting through an Export Trading Company (ETC) INTRACORPORATE TRANSFERS A third form of export activity is the intracorporate transfer,which has become more important as the sizes of MNCs have increased.An intracorporate transfer is the sale of goods by a firm in one country to an affiliated firm in another. LICENCING License is a contract to identify what is being licensed: trademarks, patents, designs, copyrights or software. Licensing allows rapidly entering into the chosen foreign market and reduces capital requirements to establish manufacturing facilities overseas. Your contract does not violation of the host countryÃ¢â¬â¢s existing laws and regulations.a licensor in the home country makes limited rights or resources available to the licensee in the host country. The rights or resources may include patents, trademarks, managerial skills, technology, and others that can make it possible for the licensee to manufacture and sell in the host country a similar product to the one the licensor has already been producing and selling in the home country without requiring the licensor to open a new operation overseas. The licensor earnings usually take forms of one time payments, technical fees and royalty payments usually calculated as a percentage of sales. As in this mode of entry the transference of knowledge between the parental company and the licensee is strongly present, the decision of making an international license agreement depend on the respect the host government show for intellectual property and on the ability of the licensor to choose the right partners and avoid them to compete in each other market. Licensing is a relatively flexible work agreement that can be customized to fit the needs and interests of both, licensor and licensee. Franchising The franchising system can be defined as: Ã¢â¬Å"A system in which semi-independent business owners (franchisees) pay fees and royalties to a parent company (franchiser) in return for the right to become identified with its trademark, to sell its products or services, and often to use its business format and system. Compared to licensing, franchising agreements tends to be longer and the franchisor offers a broader package of rights and resources which usually includes: equipment, managerial systems, operation manual, initial trainings, site approval and all the support necessary for the franchisee to run its business in the same way it is done by the franchisor. In addition to that, while a licensing agreement involves things such as intellectual property, trade secrets and others while in franchising it is limited to trademarks and operating know-how of the business. TYPES OF FRANCHISES There are three available types of franchises.The first type is the dealership,a form commonly found in the automobile industry.Here,the manufacturers use franchises to distribute their product lines.These dealership act as the retail stores for the manufacturer.In some distance,they are required to meet quotas established by the manufacturers,but as is the case for any franchise,they benefit from advertising and management support provided by the franchisor.The most common type of franchise is the type that offers a name,image and method of doing business,such as McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s,KFC,Holiday Inn. There are many of these types of franchises,and their listings,with pertinent information can be found in various sources. A third type of franchise offers services.These include personnel agencies,income tax preparation companies and real estate agencies.These franchises have established names and reputation and methods of doing business.In some distances,such as real estate,the franchisee has actually been operating a business and then applies to become a member of the franchise. CONTRACT MANUFACTURING Contract manufacturing refers to a situation where a business will engage the services of an independent party to perform a specified duty for the business. In terms of manufacturing, contract manufacturing refers to a situation where a manufacturer will engage the services of an independent party to perform a specified job. There are various reasons for this type of engagement by manufacturers, all of which involve the maximization of profit. The process of contract manufacturing also has some negative considerations that include the risk of uncertainty and lack of control over the process. WHOLLY OWNED SUBSIDIRIES Entering a foreign market with a wholly owned subsidiary involves creating a local firm without the aid of a local partner. There are two ways of doing this. The first is through what is called greenfield development. This involves creating a new organization in the foreign country from the ground up. The second method is what is referred to as brownfield development. This involves purchasing an existing company in a foreign country. Brownfield developments can be beneficial because they offer local expertise, but they can be difficult because there may be resistance from those in the companyÃ to new ownership. JOINT VENTURE A market entry option which the exporter and a domestic company in the target country join together to form a new incorporated company. Both parties provide equity and resources to the JV and share in the management, profits and losses. The JV be limited to the life of a particular project. This option is popular in countries where there are restrictions on foreign ownership, eg. China and Vietnam PIGGYBACKING Piggyback marketing Ã¢â¬â low cost market entry strategy in which two or more firms represent one anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s complementary (but non-competing) products in their respective market. Or, in other words, it is an arrangement, where two or more companies help each other to market their products, where the products have to be complementary and not competing against each other. LEVEL OF INVOLVEMENT IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS No direct foreign marketing: A company in this stage does not actively cultivate customers outside national boundaries; however this companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products may reach foreign markets. Sales may be made to trading companies as well as foreign customers who come directly to the firm. Or products may reach foreign markets via domestic wholesalers or distributors who sell abroad without explicit encouragement or even knowledge of the producer. As companies develop web sites on the internet, many receive orders from international Web surfers. Often an unsolicited order from a foreign is what piques the interest of a company to seek additional international sales. Infrequent Foreign marketing: Temporary surpluses caused by variations in production levels or demand may result in infrequent marketing overseas. The surpluses are characterized by their temporary nature; therefore sales to foreign markets are made as goods are available, with little or no intention of maintaining continuous market representation. As domestic demand increases and absorbs surpluses, foreign sales activity is withdrawn. In this stage, little or no change is seen in company organization or product lines. However, few companies today fit thisÃ model because customers around the world increasingly seek long term commercial relationships. Further, evidence exists that financial returns from initial international expansions are limited. Regular Foreign marketing: At this level, the firm has permanent productive capacity devoted to the production of goods to be marketed in foreign markets. A firm may employ foreign or domestic overseas intermediaries or it may have its own sales force or sales subsidiaries in important markets. The primary focus of operations and production is to service domestic market needs. However, as overseas demand grows, production is allocated for foreign markets, and products may be adapted to meet the needs of individual foreign markets. Profit expectations from foreign markets move from being seen as a bonus to regular domestic profits to a position in which the company becomes dependent on foreign sales and profits to meet its goals. International marketing International marketing is the export, franchising, joint venture or full direct entry of a marketing organization into another country. This can be achieved by exporting a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s product into another location, entry through a joint venture with another firm in the target country, or foreign direct investment into the target country. The development of the marketing mix for that country is then required Ã¢â¬â international marketing. It can be as straightforward as using existing marketing strategies, mix and tools for export on the one side, to a highly complex relationship strategy including localization, local product offerings, pricing, production and distribution with customized promotions, offers, website, social media and leadership. Internationalization and international marketing meets the needs of selected foreign countries where a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s value can be exported and there is inter-firm and firm learning, optimization and efficiency in economies of scale and scope. The firm does not need to export or enter all world markets to be considered an international marketer. Global Marketing Global marketing is a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to market to almost all countries on the planet. With extensive reach, the need for a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s product or services isÃ established. The global firm retains the capability, reach, knowledge, staff, skills, insights, and expertise to deliver value to customers worldwide. The firm understands the requirement to service customers locally with global standard solutions or products, and localizes that product as required to maintain an optimal balance of cost, efficiency, customization and localization in a control-customization continuum to best meet local, national and global requirements to position itself against or with competitors, partners, alliances, substitutes and defend against new global and local market entrants per country, region or city. The firm will price its products appropriately worldwide, nationally and locally, and promote, deliver access and information to its customers in the most cost-effective way. The firm also needs to understand, research, measure and develop loyalty for its brand and global brand equity (stay on brand) for the long term. b)OULINE ADVANTAGES AND DISAVANTAGES OF EACH STRATEGY. Advantages of direct exporting: -Control over selection of foreign markets and choice of foreign representative companies. -Good information feedback from target market. -Better protection of trademarks, patents, goodwill, and other intangible property. Ã¢â¬â Potentially greater sales than with indirect exporting. Disadvantages of direct exporting: Ã¢â¬â Higher start-up costs and higher risks as opposed to indirect exporting; Ã¢â¬â Greater information requirements; Ã¢â¬â Longer time-to-market as opposed to indirect exporting. Advantages of the international franchising mode: -Low political risk -Low cost -Allows simultaneous expansion into different regions of the world -Well selected partners bring financial investment as well as managerial capabilities to the operation. Advantages of indirect exporting -ItÃ¢â¬â¢s an almost risk-free way to begin. -It demands minimal involvement in the export process. -It allows you to continue to concentrate on your domestic business. -YouÃ have limited liability for product marketing problems Ã¢â¬â thereÃ¢â¬â¢s always someone else to point the finger at! -You learn as you go about international marketing. -Depending on the type of intermediary with which you are dealing, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to concern yourself with shipment and other logistics. Disadvantages of indirect exporting: -Your profits are lower. -You lose control over your foreign sales. -You very rarely know who your customers are, and thus lose the opportunity to tailor your offerings to their evolving needs. -When you visit, you are a step removed from the actual transaction. You feel out of the loop. -The intermediary might also be offering products similar to yours, including directly competitive products, to the same customers instead of providing exclusive representation. -Your long-term outlook and goals for your export program can change rapidly, and if youÃ¢â¬â¢ve put your product in someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s hands, itÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to redirect your efforts accordingly. Advantages of licensing -Obtain extra income for technical know-how and services -Reach new markets not accessible by export from existing facilities -Quickly expand without much risk and large capital investment -Pave the way for future investments in the market -Retain established markets closed by trade restrictions -Political risk is minimized as the licensee is usually 100% locally owned -Is highly attractive for companies that are new in international business. Disadvantages of licensing -Lower income than in other entry modes -Loss of control of the licensee manufacture and marketing operations and practices leading to loss of quality -Risk of having the trademark and reputation ruined by an incompetent partner -The foreign partner can also become a competitor by selling its production in places where the parental company is already in. -investment to attract prospects and support and manage franchisees. Advanatges of Frachising -Franchising provide knowledge of the local markets. A franchise provides franchisees with a certain level of independence where they can operate their business. A franchise provides an established product or service which may already enjoy widespread brand-name recognition. This gives the franchisee the benefits of a pre-sold customer base which would ordinarily takes years to establish. A franchise increases your chances of business success because you are associating with proven products and methods. Franchises may offer consumers the attraction of a certain level of quality and consistency because it is mandated by the franchise agreement. Ã¢â¬â Disadvantages of franchising: -Franchisees may turn into future competitors. -Demand of franchisees may be scarce when starting to franchise a company, which can lead to making agreements with the wrong candidates -A wrong franchisee may ruin the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s name and reputation in the market -Dependence on franchisee. -Potential conflicts with franchisee. Advantages of Joint Venture: -Accessing additional financial resources Ã¢â¬â Asset sharing is one of the best advantages about joint venture. Since, you are able to use larger funds to facilitate the production and operation of projects and products, you facilitate growth. In other words, you increase profit margin and increase your revenue potential. -Sharing the economic risk with co-venturer Ã¢â¬â It pays to have someone sharing the responsibility with you in case you end up in deep troubles. This is also true with joint venture. Since you are sharing assets, the risk of losing a great deal of money is divided to both parties. -Widening economic scope fast Ã¢â¬â Building reputation is often difficult, not to mention time consuming and expansive. At a joint venture, you are able to widen your economic scope without spending too much money and waiting for a long time. Ã¢â¬â Tapping newer methods, technology, and approach you do not have Ã¢â¬â In order to grow and expand, you need resources in the forms of methods, technology, and approach. For that matter, it would help a lot if you will be able to partner with an entity that presently has the things you donÃ¢â¬â¢t and the things you need. Joint venture opens up the venue for such need. -Building relationship with vital contacts Ã¢â¬â Aside from economic territory, another advantage of joint venture is the ability to give you business relationships with vital contacts. This is just like automatically befriending your partnerÃ¢â¬â¢s influential friend that can give you access to lots of things such as business opportunities and a pass to vital information. Disadvantages of Joint Venture: -Shared profit Ã¢â¬â Since you share assets, you also share the profit. The profit of both parties usually depends on the size of the share to the venture or may be defined on the agreement. -Diminished control over some important matters Ã¢â¬â Operational control and decision making are sometimes compromised in joint ventures. Since there is an agreement that divides which one will take over a particular operation, the other may not be satisfied with how the things are worked out with another. This leads us to another disadvantage of a joint venture. -Undesired outcome of the quality of the product or project Ã¢â¬â Since one party may not have control on the supervision of the production or the execution of one part of the system, this can happen. This often leads to disputes and lawsuits. To avoid this, both parties agree on specific details about the whole operation process. -Uncontrolled or unmonitored increase in the operating cost Ã¢â¬â Again, defined control over the operation may lead to this disadvantage. It is important therefore to make sure that all things are clarified on the paper before singing in the joint venture agreement. Advantages of contract manufacturing -Low financial risks Ã¢â¬â contract manufacturing allows companies to save costs by manufacturing a particular item at a cheaper rate than what it would cost them If they decided to undertake the manufacturing process themselves. Ã¢â¬â it allows the company doing the outsourcing to shave some time off the whole process, giving them quicker returns and turnovers. Ã¢â¬â Where a company is less effective than another in manufacturing an item, contract manufacturing will allow it to concentrate on that in which it is the most efficient. Disadvantages of contract manufacturing -Reduced learning potential -Potential public relations problems may need to monitor working conditions. -The company doing the outsourcing faces some degree of risk if it fails to do its research properly. This is because outsourcing the manufacturing to the wrong company could end up costing the company more, rather than less, if the outsourced company fails to deliver as expected. Advantages of wholly owned subsidiaries On the positive side, a wholly-owned subsidiary that does its business in a location different from the parent companyÃ¢â¬â¢s is able to remain in its locale. With the business world spanning so many countries, this can serve as a great advantage in international situations. Name recognition is another positive reason for maintaining a wholly-owned subsidiary. If a particular brand name is well known and popular, the parent company has no reason to absorb the subsidiary entirely. Wholly-owned status allows the subsidiary to retain its name brand, thus avoiding hindering its sales. Diversity for the parent company is another perk created by maintaining a wholly-owned subsidiary. This status allows the parent company to branch out into different products and markets, building strength in diversification. Disadvantages of wholly owned subsidiaries a wholly-owned subsidiary are more business oriented. The holding company runs a definite risk in assuming control of another company while allowing its management to continue to operate independently of the parent companyÃ¢â¬â¢s. The level of investment and allocation of funds and resources required is also very high. A parent company must spend a great deal of time and money to smoothly integrate the new subsidiary.All of these factors require commitment and dedication on the part of the holding company and willingness to form that partnership on the part of the subsidiary. Advantages of piggybacking reduced financial costs limited risk quick, easy access to the market. Generally, the supported company can make immediate profits on the new market. The SME can, thus save time (3-5 years), compared to the normal length of time necessary to establish itself ; reduced logistical and administrative operations ; benefit of the brand image that the supporting company brings to its products ; immediate availability of a sales force structure ; excellent market knowledge of the supporting company. Disadvantages of piggybacking weak motivation of large companies to become supporters ; difficulty in finding partners offering a compatible product and distribution network ; risk of market loss, which can be reduced due to the complementarity of the product, and commercial follow-up between the partners ; occasional difficult relations because of differences in size or culture ; risk of lack of mutual confidence and of lack of involvement ; risk of conflict of interest (e.g. local agents could systematically put the interests of the supporting company before those of the supported company) ; occasional very rigid requirements and conditions of access to the commercial networks of large companies. These conditions can be qualitative (e.g.: product quality) and quantitative (minimum level of annual turnover, high commissions, etc.). Macro Environmental Influences That Can Affect SAB Millers SABMillerÃ¢â¬â¢s origins date back to the foundation of Castle Breweries in 1895 as to serve a growing market of miners and prospectors in and around Johannesburg, South Africa. Two years later, it became the first industrial company to list on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange and the year after (1898) it listed on the London Stock Exchange. From the early 1990s onwards, the company increasingly expanded internationally, making several acquisitions in both emerging and developed markets. In 1999, it formed a new UK-based holding company, SAB plc, and moved its primary listing to London. In May 2002, SAB plc acquired Miller Brewing, forming SABMiller plc. It is very important that SAB Miller considers its environment before going into international the market. In fact, environmental analysis should be continuous and feed all aspects of their planning to go international The macro-environment refers to the major external and uncontrollable factors that influence an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s decision making, and affect its performance and strategies. These factors include the Political (and legal) forces, Economic forces, Sociocultural forces, and Technological forces. These are known as the PEST factors. PEST Analysis Political Factors: The political environment revolves around the current government in a particular country in which SAB Miller manufactures or trades, and also laws/legislation operate or within their home market as well as overseas. If their government is socialist then perhaps there is a policy to tax more and to invest in the public sector. On the other hand if SAB Millers have a more conservative or Republican government then the free-market is left to take control, taxation is less and there is often a smaller public sector. The political arena has a huge influence upon the regulation of the business, and the spending power of consumers and other businesses. SAB Miller must consider issues like: Ã¢â¬ ¢How stable is the political environment in that country? Ã¢â¬ ¢Will government policy of that country influence laws that regulate or tax SAB Miller? Ã¢â¬ ¢What is the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s position on marketing ethics? Ã¢â¬ ¢What is the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s policy on the economy? Ã¢â¬ ¢Does the government have a view on culture and religion? Ã¢â¬ ¢Is the government involved in trading agreements such as EU, NAFTA, ASEAN, or others? Economic Factors The economic environment is a direct influence on all businesses. Obviously if you are studying marketing there is a huge element of economics within the topic itself, and you should be no stranger to the principles of economics. As we saw from our lesson on the marketing environment there is a macro environment, and internal environment and the microenvironment. More specifically youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be at looking elements such as where a business is in terms of the current business cycle, and whether or not they are trading in a recession. SAB Millers marketers need to consider the state of a trading economy in the short and long-terms. This is especially true when planning for international marketing. You need to look at: 1. Interest rates. 2. The level of inflation Employment level per capita. 3. Long-term prospects for the economy Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita, and so on. Sociocultural Factors The Sociocultural environment embodies everything which is social and cultural within a nation or society. There are plenty of examples of society and culture on the marketing teacher website, so we recommend that you go to our lesson store and look through some of the consumer behaviour pages. Some notable examples would include the influence of learning, memory, emotion and perception, motivation, lifestyle and attitude and consumer culture. Have a look at the six living generations in America, social environment and class, the impact of your birth order on how you behave as a consumer and take a look at the eight types of online shoppers. In a more general sense consider influences such as the increase in life expectation of Western consumers, and demographics which is the study of populations. The social and cultural influences on business vary from country to country. It is very important that such factors are considered. Factors include: 1. What is the dominant religion? 2. What are attitudes to foreign products and services? 3. Does language impact upon the diffusion of products onto markets? 4. How much time do consumers have for leisure? 5. What are the roles of men and women within society? 6. How long are the population living? Are the older generations wealthy? 7. Do the population have a strong/weak opinion on green issues? Technological Factors Technological factors are a multifaceted influencer. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s just think about the sorts of technology that you come in touch with almost daily. Smart phones such as Android and iphone are now common Ã¢â¬â all Ã¢â¬â garden, and we are used to being able to access information and communication technology instantly no matter where we are. During studies or at work we have access to information on quick PCs and over the Internet, with faster broadband connections arriving in many parts of the world. Technology also surrounds business processes. As we saw from our lesson on the functions within an organisation all departments use information technology or technology in one form or another. Our manufacturing operations will use technology to produce goods and services. Our logistics and warehousing functions use forklifts and Lorries as well as order tracking technology and software. The customer service department will use communication technology to talk to customers but will also have access to internal systems, such as technology to simplify credit control and stock control for example. There are many, many more examples of technology. Technology is vital for competitive advantage, and is a major driver of globalization. Consider the following points: 1. Does technology allow for products and services to be made more cheaply and to a better standard of quality? 2. Do the technologies offer consumers and businesses more innovative products and services such as Internet banking, new generation mobile telephones, etc? 3. How is distribution changed by new technologies e.g. books via the Internet, flight tickets, auctions, etc? 4. Does technology offer companies a new way to communicate with consumers e.g. banners, Customer Relationship Management (CRM), etc?
Posted by w at 3:04 AM
In the novel, Ã¢â¬Å"To Kill a MockingbirdÃ¢â¬ , the character Scout plays an important role; Harper Lee portrays her as straightforward, abrupt, impulsive, and even just plain rude. One example of this is when Scout says, Ã¢â¬Å"He ainÃ¢â¬â¢t company, Cal, heÃ¢â¬â¢s just a Cunningham,Ã¢â¬ (Lee 24) in reference to when Walter Cunningham was over at the Finch residence, and Scout disapproved of the way he ate his food, that is, with a liberal amount of syrup. This shows that she is unafraid to speak her mind. Also, it shows that she is very opinionated about classes of people, as the Cunningham boy was of a lower class than ScoutÃ¢â¬â¢s own family. This, in addition, proves that Scout can be unruly when she wants to be. Another great quote from LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s story, to go along with the one above, would be when Scout decides to take a piece of gum from a knothole in a tree on the way home from school. Ã¢â¬Å"I stood on tiptoeÃ¢â¬ ¦hastily looked around once more, reached into the hole, and withdrew two pieces of chewing gum minus their outer wrappers. My first impulse was to stick it into my mouth.Ã¢â¬ (Lee 32) This excerpt from the story shows ScoutÃ¢â¬â¢s impulsive side, showing that she does not always think before acting. There is also another side to Scout that we do not see as much, the gentle side, where she cares for Jem, and wants him not to go to the RadleyÃ¢â¬â¢s to give Arthur Radley a note. Another example is when she goes with Jem to read to Mrs. Dubose, a horrible woman, every day. In conclusion, Scout may seem rowdy, unruly, and uncouth, and she may be, but on the inside there is more to that, she also is a caring little girl.
Posted by w at 2:53 AM
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
A habit is a routine of behavior that is repeated regularly and tends to occur unconsciously. Habits can be categories as either good habits or bad habits. Bad habits are negative behavior pattern. Examples of bad habits are gambling, smoking, overspending, and procrastination. Whereas, good habits are behavior that is beneficial to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s physical and mental health and often linked to a high level of discipline and self-control. For example, regular exercise, balanced diet, and reading are good habits. The quote Ã¢â¬Å"We first make our habits, and then our habits make usÃ¢â¬ from an English poet, John Dryden. It means at first we are in control of our behavior and we can determine which habits we would like to practice. But, when we practice the habits, it will influence our life no matter it is good habit or bad habit. Thus, it is better for everyone to foster the good habits and break the bad habits. And, the best time to correct a bad habit is immediately. If you have a bad habit like gambling, then it is better to quit it now before you become bankrupt due to this bad habit. However, if you have good reading habit, you should continue this practice. Reading is the process of recognizing the written words and understands their meaning. It is a complex interaction between text and reader. ReaderÃ¢â¬â¢s prior knowledge, experiences, attitude and language are related to the reading process. People can have their reading through book, magazine, newspaper, and electronic displays such as mobile phones or e-readers. There are many benefits of reading habits. Reasons why reading habits is good and important: 1. Expose to new things By reading, we expose ourselves to new knowledge and information. We learn the new ways to solve a problem and new ways to achieve our goals. Besides that, we also can develop our new hobbies through reading. For instance, when read cuisine book, it may influence our interest in cooking. We improve our knowledge in various fields and expand our thinking to wider views. InÃ addition, exploration begins from reading and understanding. For example, a backpacker start his travel experience by reading travelling magazines and understand more about the culture and environment of the country before his exploration from one country to another country. 2. Self-improvement Self-improvement is the improvement of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge, status, or character by oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own efforts. People can improve themselves by practice reading habits. Reading habits help us to build self-confidence. It helps us to become a better person. We improve ourselves by reading newspaper, novels, and historical books. All the books we read will be the assets in our mind. And, reading variety of books also known as one type of investment on ourselves. Through reading, we create a structured path towards a better understanding of ourselves and know the better choices to make in our life. 3. Mental stimulation Reading helps to keep our brain active and prevent it from losing power. That is because brain is functioned when we are reading. Sometimes, we also need to think and try to understand what we are reading. The reading process is the good way to stimulate our mental and enhance our cognitive mental ability. Thus, reading habits can prevent older age diseases and slow down the progress of AlzheimerÃ¢â¬â¢s. 4. Stress reduction Reading habit is a relaxing hobby. People choose to read when they feel stress and tension from their routine work and daily life. For example, reading a well-written novel can transport the reader to other realms. It can take you away from reality and drain away the pressures. Many people prefer to read a book and forget all their cares and worries for a while as they experiences and enjoy the peace and tranquility through reading. 5. Stronger analytical and thinking skills When read an amazing mystery novel, we put on analytical and critical thinking skills throughout the reading. We improve our ability by analyzing the plots and try to figure out the developing plot or mystery. Sometimes, the writer use high-context in their writing. As a reader, we need to analyze the deeper meanings behind the story. Every story gives differentÃ learning outcomes and it depends on how the reader analyze on it. 6. Boost imagination and creativity Books are beyond imagination. It likes a huge spider web, where you keep linking to more new things and knowledge. By practicing reading habits, we expand our thinking from a narrow angle to wider angle. We explore a different perspectives to see the things and understand how different actions lead to different results. Reading is vital for children to develop imagination and creativity. Fairy tales in the story book give the children to imagine what going on in the story although it is not happened in reality. 7. Better writing skills The more you read, the more words you exposure to and the more you understand about one thing. The vocabulary words and knowledge in certain field improve our writing skills. People come out with many ideas when they read more and know more vocabulary. For them, writing an essay within a short time just a piece of cake. 8. Memory improvement Reading improves the memory and helps to exercise and boost your memory powers. When we read, the reading materials will enter our memory system and when we able to remember back what we reading before. The reading habits improve our memory and enhance our ability to memorize things. For instance, students read the reference books during exam and able to memorize the important points when they are sitting for the examination. Day by day, their memory ability is improved and they able to apply what they learned in their daily life. Business Growth of Hussain by reading habits Based on the case study, reading habits help Hussain to grow faster in the business world. Initially, Hussain sold chocolate in the market every morning in order to earn income for his family. Due to his unique habits of reading, his uncle offered a classical book for him to read. After Hussain finished reading the book, he got an offer from an old man to sell that book at double price. For gaining more money, he bought two more copies of the same book and managed to sell them within three hours. He noticed thatÃ people are in need of good books. Hence, he decided to sell books along with his chocolate business. When Hussain realized the profits earned from book sales much better than the chocolate sales, he stopped his chocolate business. He distributed free chocolate as the marketing strategy for his new business of selling books. He was a good reader as well as a good trader. He bought the books from small hawkers or vendors and successfully sold the books with double profits. He still practices his reading habits while selling the books in the market. However, he faced the problem of lacking a shop to keep all the books. Hussain was an ambitious person. He looked at things differently by believing the book sales can gain more profits in the future. He asked his uncle to convert his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s steel workshop into a bookshop. He owned his bookshop and it was the first bookshop in that area. This made him became the monopoly in that market since he is the sole bookseller at there. No competitors and competition with others for his business. Besides that, Hussain knew his products well. He had good knowledge of all the available books in his bookshop. In addition, Hussain able to answer his customers questions regarding any book in his bookshop. This ability increased the customer satisfaction and encouraged their loyalty to his business. Hussain managed to build good relationship with the customers and retain the customers for their next visiting to his bookshop. Hussain had a kind personality and behaved like a sophisticated person with his teachers. His teachers used to visit his bookshop and became his valuable customers. By helping teachers to buy gifts near his bookshop, he got the inspiration of providing additional products in his bookshop. He expanded his bookshopÃ¢â¬â¢s products from books to gifts such as notebooks, pens, pencils, etc. Thus, his business started to satisfy all the schoolsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs and he became popular in many schools. By signing a contract with his uncle, Hussain get his new stores. He was ableÃ to buy in bulk and became the main supplier of books to many schools. Moreover, providing the schoolsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs led him to think of the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs such as bags, ruler, erasers, and sharpeners. Therefore, Hussain converted the bookshop concept to a wider concept where all the schoolsÃ¢â¬â¢, teachersÃ¢â¬â¢, and studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs were met. He expanded his target markets to teachers and students. Unfortunately, Hussain lost his bookshop due to a big fire which caused by an electric short circuit. After his secondary education, he restarted his business of supplying educational goods. Hussain employed two assistants to help him run for the bookshop business. His business started picking up and received huge demands from many schools due to the good location of his bookshop where it closed to various schools. The strategic location of his new bookshop was convenient to the customers and be the success factor of his business. At the same time, Hussain applied to work in the government as a store keeper. He could convince his sponsor to supply the needed office stationery at a low price. Since there was no specific buyer for the stationery with good system in servicing orders and delivering products, HussainÃ¢â¬â¢s bookshop became the only office supplier for the government services. Many government departments, offices, and companies became his valuable customers. Thus, the high growth in demand led four times expansions to its first size of the business. Due to the need of money to cover the purchase in bulk from China, Hussain decided to sell his bookshop. When Hussain solved his financial problems, he established his new company for office supplies near the bookshop. He informed all his previous customers about his new option of setting up a company which specialized in stationery. He left his job as a store keeper and rented a small office equipped with fax and telephone. His employed two workers and found an appropriate store in a cheap location near the office. This change reduced the cost to the lowest. He started to buy stationery abroad. By applying JIT techniques, his companyÃ¢â¬â¢s revenues and profits increased dramatically. The customer service was well managed and theÃ company focused on wholesale orders. Hussain leased back his ex-bookshop at a lower rental price. He reopened the bookshop in an innovative way by providing all the educational products required by individuals. He closed the new office and relocated it inside the bookshop. The bookshop served individual customers, whereas the office served wholesale orders. By doing so, HussainÃ¢â¬â¢s business served for both types of customers. Moreover, the products were displayed in the bookshop and facilitated the wholesale buyers to see the products physically and test them before taking orders. The advantage of testing the products created value added to his business. Furthermore, Hussain be the first who use the new technology that just entered into the country. He bought the computer with Windows95 for reducing transaction time. It is a solution to feed all customersÃ¢â¬â¢ data, accelerate the delivery of customerÃ¢â¬â¢s orders, and get typed invoices. Hussain managed to achieve his dream of converting bookshop into a big company for office supplies. Hussain felt that he could provide new office equipment such as photocopiers, printers, and other related devices. In conclusion, HussainÃ¢â¬â¢s reading habits help him to go through all the challenges and struggles in his life and make him grow faster in the business world. His business grew from the initial small chocolate business to a big company for office supplies with new technology. Hence, books are forever friends to human. Reading habits change the life of Hussain as well as his business. All leaders and successful people never stop reading. That is because the day we stop learning is the day we stop growing. There is a quote from an American academic, Charles W. Eliot, Ã¢â¬Å"Books are the quietest and most constant of friends, they are the most accessible and wisest of counselors, and the most patient of teachers.Ã¢â¬ The reading habits definitely can give benefits and grow us up from day to day. Thus, we should make books be our loyal friend companion. References Dictionary.com. Ambitious. Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ambitious Dictionary.com. Inspiration. Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/inspiration Goodreads. Quotes about reading habits. Retrieved from http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/tag/reading-habits IndiaStudyChannel.com. (23 July 2012). How can reading habit make a difference in our lives? Retrieved from http://www.indiastudychannel.com/forum/95694-How-can-reading-habit-make-a-difference-in-our-lives.aspx Inspiration Boost. (n.d.). 8 Reasons Why Reading is so important. Retrieved from http://inspirationboost.com/8-reasons-why-reading-is-so-important Self Help 4 Self Developmet. (n.d.). Relax and Enjoy the Many Therapeutic Benefits of Reading. Retrieved from http://selfhelpfix.com/benefits-of-reading.php Lana Winter Hebert. (n.d.). Ten Benefits of Reading: Why You Should Read Every Day. Retrieved from http://www.lifehack.org/articles/lifestyle/10-benefits-reading-why-you-should-read-everyday.html
Posted by w at 1:48 AM
With the rate that technology is constantly improving many question the state of humans in the future when technology might possibly overtake human development. However, those who believe that the future is a place where humans will be enslaved by technology and man will no longer be enjoying the liberties now enjoyed might be in for a surprise because technology is currently designed to assist humans and improve the human quality of life. Humans and technology are set to become partners in the future because man created technology for his advancement and advantage, technology was designed to support human existence and technology was designed to improve life. The first programmable computer was invented in 1938 which was followed by the development of many other types of computers through the years. (ComputerHope) For many, this was the beginning of technology; but the fact remains that technology is the use of existing materials to improve or enhance the performance of a particular task. So based on this concept of technology, then such a concept existed as early as the time that man discovered the use of fire or when the Chinese first developed the wheel. Technology has been around for ages and for all of these instances its objective was to make the performance of a task easier. This means that the task performed is done by a human and the addition of technology simply makes the task performed by the said human much is easier to do. Technology was never intended to replace humans because it is there to exist side by side with its creator to assist in and to enhance the performance of a task. On this premise, it is easy to gather evidence that in fact, in the future, humans and technology are set to become partners to ensure the efficient and effective delivery of many things from services to products, and to the more mundane conveniences in life. One proof that humans and technology are most likely to become mutual partners in the future is the fact that technology is created for the advancement or advantage of man. Robotics is one of the aspects of technology that proves this particular point. There are suppositions that Ã¢â¬Å"the accelerating pace of technological change allows us to build machines like cyborgs (machine-enhanced humans like the Six Million Dollar Man), androids (human-robot hybrids like Data in Star Trek) and other combinations beyond what we can even imagine. Ã¢â¬ (Carnett) These innovations in robotics are set to blur the distinction between man and machine, making man perform in ways that are beyond what one can conceive. With robotics man will be able to raise a two hundred pound weight as easily as a forklift. Mike Harden once commented that, Ã¢â¬Å"in robotics, I want to do it. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s because IÃ¢â¬â¢m a magically different person in robotics. Ã¢â¬ (2010) Such a comment simply shows how this kind of technology can improve even the way humans view themselves in the context of technology Ã¢â¬â that man is empowered by technology and technology exists merely as a means of improving what man is able to normally do. Robotics is the best evidence that technology simply exists to make tasks easier for humans. This fact is validated by current situations where Ã¢â¬Å"Robots already perform many [dangerous] functions, from making cars to defusing bombs or firing missiles. (Singer and Sagan) These tasks can be lethal to humans and with the purpose of keeping humans away from risky situations, robots are utilized. Which brings the discussion to the second proof that in the future humans and technology are bound to become mutual partners Ã¢â¬â the technological purpose of human life support. Technology is designed to support human existence which is why it cannot be perceived as something that will ultimately destroy and/or cause the extinction of the human race. Medicine is the field of science where technology ultimately plays a role in supporting the existence of human life. For instance, Ã¢â¬Å"Dr. Howard W. Jones Jr. , the surgeon, along with his wife, Dr. Georgeanna Seegar Jones, helped to create the first test tube baby born in the United StatesÃ¢â¬ (Epstein) These scientists insist that human reproduction is not as efficient as it would first seem to be so technology needs to assist humans in the matter of procreation. Epstein) This basically shows the purpose of such a controversial technological advancement as Ã¢â¬Ëin vitro fertilizationÃ¢â¬â¢ is not to smite the laws of nature or to cause the extinction of the human race but on the contrary, to support such existence so that reproduction will be more efficient when compared to natural reproduction which can be affected by other, more risky influences and may result to abnormal conception or childbirth. Even scientists who are involved in such questionable technological advances like cloning accept and concede to the belief that even these kinds of scientific procedures are intended for the betterment of future generations, hence, Dr. Margaret McLean (2010) asserts that, Ã¢â¬Å"The question is not whether we ought to ban or applaud cloning but why would we choose to go forward and whether our choices bode well or ill for present and future children and our relationships with them. (Sterns) This basically shows how scientists themselves agree to the role of technology in terms of ensuring and supporting the existence of the human race. This particular belief is connected to how technology is able to improve and enhance the quality of life of human beings. From the ordinary toaster to the microwave oven to the more complex capabilities of the newest models of cellular phones intended for mobile communication, the future of technology is quite clear to be a future where humans will most likely live better lives because of how innovations can make life easier and more convenient. However, these are merely the superficial and tangible representations of such a future; other, more complex studies and more world-shattering innovations are on their way. One such innovation can be found in genetics. The most amazing developments in this field can be seen in the development of gene therapy and genetic engineering. Ã¢â¬Å"Gene therapy has very real potential for enhancing human healthÃ¢â¬ (Adams) because it addresses the flaws in human genes and corrects these flaws thereby remedying whatever physical or physiological problems are caused by that particular damaged gene. Considering this capability of gene therapy, then it is not strange if one day a diabetic is able to eat as much sugar as he/she wants to or a hypertensive is able to smoke as much as he/she wants. These effects are the perceived effects of gene therapy where the gene that causes the illness or the ailment is corrected and reintroduced into the human body. Another implication of genetics is in agriculture where food can be genetically engineered resulting in bigger tomatoes, cholesterol-free swine, and eggs or nuts that do not have any allergens! Therefore, Ã¢â¬Å"Plant science and plant gene technology will be critical activities of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s response to many challenges it faces in the coming decadesÃ¢â¬ (AAS) These challenges include the resolution of hunger, the provision of healthier food alternatives, and the sustainability of food stores for all the people in the world. Obviously, as is illustrated in these examples, technology is set to make the lives of humans more convenient. The standard of living for humans will increase with technology taking headway into the future. This particular aspect of technology is hard evidence that in the future, technology will be a partner of human beings in making the world a better place to live in. The fallacy of machines dominating humans in the future and the development of super-intelligences that will overtake human intelligence is, at this point, science fiction, because as circumstances show, technology is doing nothing nowadays but assisting humans and making life easier. The image of humans being chained by robots and made to do their bidding or used as fodder for their cogs and screws is an image that will hopefully remain in literature as the future of technology is bright in the context of how it can assist humans and improve and enhance human life. Partnership means having mutual benefit not merely focusing on the benefits of one party and in the case of technology, the benefits are both ways. The future is when humans will get as much from technology as technology from humans because without humans, technology will remain static and will no longer move onward in development. Evidence shows that as technology moves further away from the discovery of fire and the modeling of the wheel humans are set to enjoy the future with technology as an indispensable partner. Recent advancements in various fields such as robotics, genetics, medicine, and other fields of science have showed that technology will most likely be a partner to humans in the future because technology serves to make human life more convenient, it exists to support human existence, and it is designed to improve the human quality of life. Technology, while seemingly threatening to some, is in fact moving toward a fruitful and productive partnership with the human race not far into the twentieth century.
Posted by w at 1:36 AM